Prolonged periods of unopposed oestrogen are the main risk factor of Endometrial Cancer. When oestrogen is not modified by the effects of progesterone, this is termed 'unopposed oestrogen'.This may occur as a result of medication or in anovulatory cycles where the corpus luteum does not mature and secrete progesterone. The histological diagnosis can be difficult in that gross endometrial hyperplasia can look like a well-differentiated Best Endometrial Cancer Specialist In India
Being nulliparous - this increases the risk two- or three-fold. This may be by choice or as a result of infertility with anovulatory cycles.
Menopause past the age of 52.
Obesity - raises oestrogen levels
The greater the obesity, the greater the risk.
In the UK, approximately 50% of endometrial cancers are attributable to obesity.
Endometrial hyperplasia is comprised of a spectrum of changes in the endometrium, ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
Endometrial hyperplasia is associated with the presence of concomitant endometrial cancer.
Women who have hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) have a lifetime risk of 30-60% of developing endometrial cancer.
Polycystic ovary syndrome.
Diabetes mellitus - there is slight but significant and consistent increase in the risk of incidental endometrial cancer among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Tamoxifen is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the risk of endometrial cancer is low in those women aged under 50 years who take tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention.
Unopposed oestrogen increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Progesterone, however, counteracts the adverse effect of oestrogens.
Taking combined oral contraceptives actually reduces the risk of developing endometrial cancer in later life.
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