Screening refers to testing to find a disease such as cancer in people who do not have symptoms of that disease. For some types of cancer, screening can help find cancers at an early stage, when they are more easily cured.
The American Cancer Society recommends that men have a chance to make an informed decision with their health care provider about whether to be screened for prostate cancer. The decision should be made after getting information about the uncertainties, risks, and potential benefits of prostate cancer screening. Men should not be screened unless they have received this information.
The discussion about screening should take place at age 50 for men who are at average risk of prostate cancer and are expected to live at least 10 more years.
This discussion should take place starting at age 45 for men at high risk of developing prostate cancer. This includes African-American men and men who have a first-degree relative (father, brother, or son) diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age (younger than age 65).
This discussion should take place at age 40 for men at even higher risk (those with more than one first-degree relative who had prostate cancer at an early age).
After this discussion, those men who want to be screened should be tested with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test. The digital rectal exam (DRE) may also be done as a part of screening.
If, after this discussion, a man is unable to decide if testing is right for him, the screening decision can be made by the health care provider, who should take into account the patient’s general health preferences and values.
Assuming no prostate cancer is found as a result of screening, the time between future screenings depends on the results of the PSA blood test:
Men who choose to be tested who have a PSA of less than 2.5 ng/ml, may only need to be retested every 2 years.
Screening Prostate Cancer should be done yearly for men whose PSA level is 2.5 ng/ml or higher.